The Duty Of Human Life
Lecture BG 07.01-5 - Hong Kong-
The duty of human life is to understand God, Kṛṣṇa. In the Vedānta-sūtra , the first aphorism is athāto brahma jijñāsā . Athaḥ , "therefore." Because we have got this human form of body, so this is the time for inquiring about the Absolute Truth. In the other life, animal life, beast life, tree life, plant life... There are 8,400,000 different forms of life, and through evolutionary process we have passed through 8,000,000 forms of life or a few thousand more forms of life, because human beings, they are of 400,000 forms of life. Just like we have got experience over this planet there are different forms of life, different system of religion, different system of culture, even though all of them are of human form life, similarly, there are other forms of life—aquatics in the water; in the jungle, trees, plants, mountains; and then insects, reptiles, ants; then birds, flies. Jalajā nava-lakṣāni sthāvarā lakṣa-viṁśati . In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa the description is there what are the different forms of life. Jalajā nava-lakṣāni . In the water there are 900,000 forms of life. Who knows that? But in the Vedic śāstra everything perfectly calculated is given there. This is called Vedic knowledge. Vedic knowledge means perfect knowledge. There is no (indistinct) who can calculate how many forms of life are within the ocean. But from the Vedic literature you get just exact conclusion—900,000 species of life. The botanists, they cannot say how many forms of trees and plants are there. But in the Vedas you'll find sthāvarā lakṣa-viṁśati— 2,000,000's forms of life, of trees and plants. Sthāvara . Sthāvara means the living entities which cannot move, stand in one place. This is a punishment, those who are too much dull. Means..., dull means cannot understand what is God. That is dullness. Otherwise for eating, sleeping, sex life and defense there is no need of university education. Nobody goes to the university to learn how to eat, how to sleep, how to enjoy sex life and how to defend. There is no education required, because these four kinds of bodily necessities of life are known even to the animals. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca sāmānyam etat paśubhir narāṇām . How to eat, the animal knows. Even the newborn child who has no education, no experience, he still... Even the cats and dogs, cubs, as soon as born, they find out the nipples of their mother and eat or suck. Even the eyes are blind at that time, but still he knows where is their food. Similarly, human child also knows.
So for eating, sleeping, mating and defending, there is no need of education. Education means athāto brahma jijñāsā . That is education. How to know the Supreme Absolute Truth—that is education. But the university, they are educating people how to eat, how to sleep. Eh? They are manufacturing so many eatables, different types of eatables, although God has given immense foodstuffs for human society. Just like these fruits, they are made for human beings. They are not eatables for the cats and dogs. They are meant for human beings. So eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān . Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has supplied, He is supplying immense foodstuffs for all living entities. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā (ISO mantra 1) . But there is allotment for the pig—the foodstuff is stool—and for the human being, the foodstuff—fruits, flowers, foodgrains, milk, sugar. So as God has allotted, you use that for your eating. Eating is required. Then your life is successful. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā . Do not try to imitate others. Do not try to imitate the hog and the pig to eat stool. That is not human bodies' foodstuff. You eat your own foodstuff. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthāḥ . This is life. Food is already there, but the difficulty is that we do not know that we should be satisfied with the foodstuff allotted to us by God. Īśāvāsya . The foodstuff belongs to Kṛṣṇa, God. You cannot manufacture in the factory this nice foodstuff—apple, orange, banana and others, so many hundreds and thousands. So therefore the only business of human form of life is to inquire about the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Lord, the Supreme Being. That should be our inquiry. That should be the subject matter of education. Not how to eat, how to sleep, how to mate. These things do not require education. Because the animals, they also know. So everyone knows what is his foodstuff, how to sleep. When there is..., you feel sleepy, he does not ask for "Give me a good apartment, good bedstead." You'll lie down anywhere and enjoy sleeping. Similarly, how to enjoy sex life, nobody requires university education. So if we waste our time simply for being enlightened how to manufacture different types of foodstuff, how to take it on table and chair, nice dishes or plate, that is waste of time. If you utilize your time for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, that is perfection of human life. Not to waste your time in the animal propensities of life. That is not education, that is not human form of life.
So that education will be complete if you become Kṛṣṇa conscious. That is being taught in the Seventh Chapter by Kṛṣṇa Himself. What is that? Mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha : "You have to become always absorbed or attached on Me," on Kṛṣṇa. Mayy āsakta . Āsakta means attachment. We have got attachment for so many things. We have got attachment for our family, for our country, for our society, for our business, for our cats, for our dogs, so many things. But we have no attachment for Kṛṣṇa. That is lacking. Therefore life is imperfect. Śrama eva hi kevalam.
dharmaḥ svanusthitaḥ puṁsāṁ
notpādayed yadi ratiṁ
śrama eva hi kevalam
Everyone is performing his duty very nicely. That is..., Bhāgavata says, dharma-svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsām . Everyone has got his duty, either as a brāhmaṇa , as a kṣatriya , as a vaiśya , as a śūdra , as a brahmacārī , as a gṛhastha , vānaprastha , sannyāsī . This is Vedic eight divisions of social life, human life, varṇāśrama-dharma . Unless one comes to this institutional progress of life, varṇa and āśrama , they are animals. Human life begins from these eight divisions of occupational duties. A brāhmaṇa must execute his duty, a kṣatriya must execute his duty, vaiśya ... They are all described in the Bhagavad-gītā , what are the duties of brāhmaṇas : satya śamaḥ damaḥ tapaḥ ārjavam jñānam vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam BG 18.42 . Kṣatriya - tejaḥ śauryaṁ yuddhe ca apalāyanam . Vaiśya - kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam BG 18.42. Śūdra - paricaryātmakaṁ karyam śūdra-karma svabhāva-jam . Everything is there. So if everyone discharges his duty properly, then his life becomes successful. So on the whole, everything is required. The brāhmaṇa , kṣatriya , vaiśya , śūdra— these are different divisions, but what for the divisions are meant for? The division is meant for understanding God, Kṛṣṇa. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭha varṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ . These instructions are given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam , that everyone has got a particular type of duty as brāhmaṇa , kṣatriya , vaiśya , śūdra , brahmacārī , like that. Ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭha varṇāśrama-vibhāgaśaḥ . Division of varṇa and āśrama . And everyone has got his duty. So how the duty is perfected? How to know that? That is stated,
ataḥ pumbhir dvija-śreṣṭha
Svanuṣṭhitasya dharmasya .
You are acting your duty as a brāhmaṇa , kṣatriya , vaiśya , that's all right, śūdra , but you have to see whether Kṛṣṇa, or God, is satisfied by your duty. If you see that Kṛṣṇa is satisfied by your discharging of duties in a particular position, then you should know that your life is perfect. Otherwise, śrama eva hi kevalam SB 1.2.8 . Simply undergoing unnecessary troubles.
So how you can understand whether Kṛṣṇa or God is satisfied by discharging your particular type of duty? That is Kṛṣṇa is explaining Himself: mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ . You have to increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa. Mayy āsakta . Āsakta means attachment. You should be attached to your business not for the business' sake but for the attachment of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is to be satisfied. Generally we do business for my satisfaction, for my family satisfaction, for government satisfaction, for income tax satisfaction and so many satisfaction. But when you try to satisfy Kṛṣṇa or increase your attachment for His satisfaction, then your business is perfect. Mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha , svanuṣṭhitasya dharmasya saṁsiddhi. . Everyone wants perfection; otherwise what is the use of jumping like cats and dogs? That is not meant for human being, unnecessarily jumping and dancing. You must dance for satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. Then your life is... There is tendency for dancing, for chanting, for singing. They are holding ball dances, and musical instruments. The same thing we are propagating—chant and dance Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . This is satisfaction. This is satisfaction. Our movement is not dry. We are simply asking people, "Chant, dance, eat nice foodstuffs, take prasādam and go home." It is not dry, because the same tendency is there. Everyone goes to the hotel, everyone goes to the nightclub, eats sumptuously and dances with musical instruments, enjoys the same thing—but in connection with Kṛṣṇa. You take prasādam , you chant, you dance and enjoy life, but in connection with Kṛṣṇa. Then it is successful. Your life is successful. That is Kṛṣṇa also saying, mayy āsakta-manaḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ . This is the yoga, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement—the topmost yoga. There are many yogis, you might have seen, for gymnastics of the body. That is not perfection of yoga. That is yoga, a kind of yoga, but there are different kinds of yoga systems, bhakti-yoga , jñāna-yoga , haṭha-yoga , dhyāna-yoga , rāja-yoga , so many. But Kṛṣṇa says,
yoginām api sarveṣām
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
"That yogi's perfect who's always thinking of Me," mayy āsakta-manaḥ . This is being taught. "Always thinking." And Bhagavad-gītā , in another different place it is said, man-manā bhava mad-bhaktaḥ mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru mam evaiṣyasi . Asaṁśaya . The aim of life should be, especially of the human body, that try to understand Kṛṣṇa. And as far as possible... Kṛṣṇa cannot be understood fully because He is unlimited, and we have got limited knowledge. But still, as far as possible and as much as possible, if we try to understand Kṛṣṇa, janma karma ca me divyam evaṁ yo vetti tattvataḥ BG 4.9. Kṛṣṇa advents Himself, comes on this planet. He executes so many duties, takes part in so many occupational functions as human being, but everything is full of instructions. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, "Don't try to understand, even that is also good superficially, but in truth." Janma karma ca me divyam evaṁ yo vetti tattvataḥ . Tattvataḥ means "in truth, in fact." So if anyone... Janma karma ca me divyam BG 4.9. Divyam means His birth is not ordinary birth. If it had been ordinary birth, then why we are still performing the Janmāṣṭamī ceremony, Kṛṣṇa's birthday ceremony? Many big, big kings came and gone. Who is performing the birthday ceremony of that king? But we perform according to Vedic system the birthday ceremony of Lord Rāmacandra. Nowadays we have imitated so many other birthday ceremonies, but in the śāstra it is enjoined the birthday ceremony of the advent of God should be observed. The birthday ceremony of God is called jayantī . That is special constellation of the stars. But now the jayantī has been used for so many rascals and fools. This is not śāstric. So because Kṛṣṇa's janma and ordinary man's janma is not the same thing, therefore Kṛṣṇa says, janma karma ca me divyam BG 4.9. Divyam means transcendental, not material. Not material. It is spiritual or transcendental, divyam . Janma karma ca me divyam evaṁ yo vetti tattvataḥ BG 4.9. Still you have to learn it in truth.
So if you learn this science, simply to understand why Kṛṣṇa advents, why Kṛṣṇa takes part in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra or other activities just like a human being... Why? If you try to understand this fact... That can be known. They are all mentioned in the śāstra . The sādhus , they know; the guru, he knows. So if you want to be learned in the science you can become, because śāstra is there, guru is there, and sādhu is there. Sādhu-śāstra-guru-vākya . Then you will be able to understand what is Kṛṣṇa, why He advents, why His activities are transcendental. So if you try to understand these things, then what will be the result? Result will be tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti BG 4.9. After giving up this body, no more material body. No more material body means no more death. The death takes place on account of this material body; otherwise the living entity, nityaḥ śāśvato 'yaṁ na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre BG 4.9 . Living entity is eternal; he does not die, he does not take birth. Na jāyate mriyate vā kadācit . Eternal. Then why he dies? That death is of this material body, not of the eternal soul. So although we are eternal, nityaḥ śāśvataḥ , still we have to accept different types of body. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate BG 4.9. Dehino'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā BG 4.9 . So this transmigration of the soul from one body to another is not very good business. Who wants to die? Nobody wants to die. But he has to die. He must die. There is no question of he likes or not likes. Nobody wants to take birth, again enter into the womb of mother. And nowadays it is very risky, because mother is killing the child: the ultimate end of Kali-yuga. The mother's shelter, a child feels very happy on the lap of mother, and that is the arrangement of nature. Mother should take care of the child. But in this age the people are so, I mean to say, contaminated that even mother is killing child. Just imagine what is the position of birth and death. Birth and death is not very good business. Therefore if you want to stop this birth and death then take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, try to understand Kṛṣṇa.
janma karma ca me divyam
evam yo vetti tattvataḥ
tyaktva dehaṁ punar janma
naiti (mām eti so 'rjuna)
Punar janma naiti . You can stop your birth and death. And if you stop your birth and death, then you stop your disease and old age. That eternity—you are eternal. You get your eternal life. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre BG 2.20 . The eternal..., even if we get this material body, even though we change this material body, just like I was a baby, you were a baby, but that body is no longer existing. I am in different body, still I am existing. Therefore na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre BG 2.20 . Although the body has changed, I am not changed. This is my position. Therefore perfection of life means to keep oneself in his original, constitutional position, not to change body. But that is possible. How it is possible? Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya BG 2.20. Everything is there. How it is possible?
yānti deva-vratā devān
pitṟn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ
bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā
yānti mad-yājino 'pi mām
If you want to go to the higher planetary systems by pious activities, you can go there, yānti deva-vratā devān . You can go to the planet where Lord Brahma lives or where Indra lives or Candra lives. The modern process, by taking a sputnik or jet, you can go to the moon planet. But that you can go. Whether you can go or not go, that is up to you. But you cannot stay there. That is not possible. If you want to stay there, then yānti deva-vratā devān . You have to prepare yourself by worshiping that particular deva or deity, demigod; then you will be admitted. Just like if you want to go to a foreign country you have to take the permission of the immigration department, visa, then you can go. If that law is there in this planet, why not for other planet? How you can go abruptly, by force? That is not possible. Yānti deva-vratā devān . You have to prepare yourself to go. You can go there. But after this life, if you are sufficiently prepared to enter that particular type of planet, you can go there. Similarly, you can go to the planet where Kṛṣṇa lives. Mad-yājino 'pi yānti mām BG 9.25 . So what is the difference between going to the higher planetary systems, heavenly planet, and going to the planet where Kṛṣṇa lives? The difference is, yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama BG 9.25 . If you go to the planet where Kṛṣṇa lives, then you haven't got to come back again. Otherwise, in other planets, in the heavenly planets, kṣīṇe puṇye punar martya-lokaṁ viśanti . You can live there, just like you can live in a foreign country so long your visa continues. Simply... Similarly, you can go to the higher, heavenly planets, but you can live there up to the point of visa, puṇya . By pious activities you can go to the higher planetary systems, but by impious activities you go to the lower planets. Adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ . Adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ , jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā , ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthā BG 9.25. So even if you go to Brahma-loka, Indra-loka— ā-brahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartinao 'rjuna BG 9.25 — you have to come back again. But, yad gatvā na nivartante , tad dhāma paramaṁ mama BG 9.25 . If you go to that planet, yad gatvā na nivartante , one does not require to come back again. "That is My real abode." Tad dhāma paramam . Every dhāma is Kṛṣṇa's, but that is the parama dhāma , supreme dhāma . Just like the king. The kingdom belongs to the king, but still he has got his special royal house, palace. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is the proprietor of all planets, sarva-loka-maheśvaram BG 9.25, but He still has got His own planet. That is called Gokula Vṛndāvana.
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is a movement to educate people how to go back to Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. So our request is that you take advantage of this movement. Don't be fully simply absorbed in the activities of animal life—eating, sleeping, mating, and defending. This is also required, but under regulation. Eating is not prohibited in Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, but eating is regulated. Don't eat anything without Kṛṣṇa's prasādam . Oh, Kṛṣṇa prasādam , there are so many varieties nice foodstuff. Be satisfied taking Kṛṣṇa's prasādam so your eating problem will be solved and you will advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness to go back to home, back to Godhead. So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is very important movement for the human society, and this is not a Utopian thing. It is authorized. For every action of Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement there is support from Vedas , Vedic literature. Just like whenever we speak something we immediately give evidence from the Bhagavad-gītā . It is not that something, "In my opinion it is..." No. We have no opinion. We don't give our opinion. We present Bhagavad-gītā as it is, that's all. As Kṛṣṇa says, we say the same thing. We have no difficulty. Kṛṣṇa says, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat , kiñcid asti dhanañjaya BG 7.7. "There is no more superior truth than Kṛṣṇa," Kṛṣṇa says. We accept that. We preach that, that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam BG 7.7. If you are searching after God, that is your duty. Athāto brahma jijñāsā . That is your human life's business, to search out the truth, Absolute Truth. Then that is Kṛṣṇa, that is Kṛṣṇa. In the Vedānta-sūtra it is indirectly said, "The Absolute Truth is janmādy asya yataḥ BG 7.7 , from whom everything is generated." That is Absolute Truth. That answer is given in the Bhagavad-gītā , aham sarvasya prabhavaḥ mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate : BG 7.7 "I am the origin of everything." Aham ādir hi devānām BG 7.7 . Somebody may say the demigods like Lord Brahma, Siva, they are the beginning demigods. But Kṛṣṇa says, aham ādir hi devānām . "The all the demigods, but their beginning, they are also coming from Me." Sarvasya prabhavaḥ mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate . These things are there. So we are teaching that. It is not difficult. We are not manufacturing anything by fertile brain. Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gītā . And we are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is, preaching the Bhagavad-gītā as it is. The Bhāgavata is also further explanation of Bhagavad-gītā , Vedānta-sūtra explanation.
So we have got immense literature. We have already published more than twenty books. If you want to understand the Absolute Truth by philosophy, by science, there are books. Otherwise, the easy method is chant Hare Kṛṣṇa: Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. So God has given you the tongue, and it doesn't matter whether you are Indian or American or Englishman, German or African. Everyone can chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . That is actually being done. In Africa they are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . In Australia they are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . In Europe they are chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . In Asia they are accustomed to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra . The chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra is going on all over the world. Take advantage of it. Don't miss this opportunity, and make your life successful.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. Any questions? Any questions?
Devotee: Does anyone have any questions? Feel free to ask if you do.
Prabhupāda: No questions? Everything understood? No difficulty in understanding? Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā BG 4.34. Try to clear if it is not understood. I have spoken nothing which is not understandable, but still, if you have not understood, you can put your question. Hm. All right, then chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. If you have any question, you can ask.
Indian man: Five thousand years (indistinct). How many more years will Kali-yuga will stand?
Prabhupāda: Four hundred and twenty-seven thousands of years. The complete age of Kali-yuga is 432,000's years. Out of that, the Kali-yuga has begun from the date of Battle of Kurukṣetra, historical. So we have passed 5,000 years from the date of Battle of Kurukṣetra. Therefore 432,000's of years minus 5,000's of years, the remaining age—427,000's of years. This is practically the beginning of Kali-yuga. Now the more the age of Kali-yuga will increase, the sufferings of Kali-yuga will also increase. At the end of Kali-yuga there will be no food supply. There will be no more food grains, no more fruits, no more milk, no more sugar. These things are stated. And everyone will be obliged to take meat and roots. Gradually the condition of the people will be so dull that they'll not be able to understand what is God. At the present, even in the beginning, even 5,000 years have passed, people cannot understand actually what is God. A vague idea. They do not know actually what is the nature of God. So gradually it will be forgotten. But still, because still people have got some sense, therefore this preaching work is going on. At the end they will be all nonsense, just like animals. Therefore there will be another incarnation, Kalki, at the end of Kali-yuga. He'll simply kill the whole population.
mleccha-nivaha-nidhane kalayasi karavālaṁ
dhūmaketum iva kim api karālam
keśava dhṛta-kalki-śarīra jaya jagadīśa hare
Mleccha means misbehaved. As we say— mleccha , yavana . One who does not follow the Vedic principles, they are called mleccha . And those who are meat-eaters, they are called yavana , mleccha , yavana . This is the meaning of mleccha , yavana . It is not a particular class of men. Anyone who eats meat, he's a yavana , and anyone who does not live to the standard of Vedic understanding, he is a mleccha . So everyone will become mleccha . So mleccha-nivaha-nidhane kalayasi karavālam . The Lord will become very much vicious. Asi karavālam . Just like dhūmaketuh , comet. Dhūmaketum iva kim api karālam nidhane . Mleccha-nidhane . That will be the only remedy—to kill all the mlecchas . The avatāra , Kalki avatāra will come. Keśava dhṛta buddha śarīra , ah, keśava dhṛta kalki śarīra . Buddha śarīra is also, keśava dhṛta buddha śarīra , to give protection to the poor animals. Lord Buddha appeared to stop animal-killing. Sadaya-hṛdaya-darśita-paśu-ghātam, nindasi yajña-vidher ahaha śruti-jātaṁ . Lord Buddha, he declined to accept Vedic authority. Why? Because in the Vedas also there is sanction sometimes in yajña , animal sacrifice. But he wanted to stop animal sacrifice, animal-killing. Therefore he denied the authority of Vedas . Because people will give evidence that "You are preaching no animal-killing, but in the Vedas sometimes in sacrifice the animals are sacrificed. How you can stop this?" Therefore Lord Buddha had to deny the authority of Vedas . That is described, nindasi yajña-vidher . The animal-killing is described in the Vedas , in the yajña-vidher , not in the slaughterhouse. In the Yajña-vidher . That also was decried. Nindasi yajña-vidher ahaha śruti-jātam . Because according to Vedic civilization, śruti , Veda , is the evidence. Therefore if Lord Buddha accepts the authority of Vedas , he cannot say, "Stop animal-killing." Then he said, "No. I do not follow Vedic principles." Therefore he is called nāstika . Anyone who defies the authority of Vedas , he is called nāstika . Sri Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore says, veda nā māniyā bauddha haya ta' nāstika . On account of denying the authority of Vedas , the Buddhas became nāstika . Vedāśraya nāstikya-vāda bauddhake adhika . And those who are lip-sympathy vedī— "I am following Vedic principles" and doing all nonsense—they are lower than these nāstika . Lower than the nāstika . Veda nā māniyā bauddha haya ta' nāstika . So Lord Buddha appeared to stop animal-killing, ahiṁsā . He did not say anything more. His only mission was, "Let these rascals first of all stop this animal-killing, they'll understand further about spiritual advancement." Those who are animal killer, they cannot understand anything about spiritual advancement. That is not possible. Therefore this thing must be stopped first. That is Buddha philosophy. But in spite of that... (end)